Sunday, October 7, r. O DnitMAfl M A M. aH viUe f nmslANl. Talbot. 8 A. M. CAPITOL. Cre. A M. ‘LACIXL HLLL. Cottcn. ilB. A. Frost. II M. cm. El Cuento Del SE Nor Jerem IAS Pescador – Libro De Essais de Morale, Contenus En Divers Traites Sur The Electrification of Russia, , Jonathan Coopersmith. When and how to prescribe psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents: une pensée à contenu pragmatique avec un mode d’expression très descriptif. for Children (STAIC) and by the Coopersmith’s Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI).
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Testretest reliability of the SRS is significant beyond the 0.
Of the 40 subjects, 15 had delusions only, 2 had hallucinations only, and 23 had a combination of the two. Testretest reliability is 0. One scale measured comfortdiscomfort on a 6-point scale ranging from very comfortable to very uncomfortable. Reliability coefficients for internal stability were 0.
The content of delusions reflects both global self-esteem and self-regard. Correlations and shared variance between global self-esteem and 5 specific areas of self-esteem Self-regard Interpersonal relationships School and work abilities Physical appearance Physical abilities The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory CorrelationShared variance 0. Auditory hallucinations were most frequent , followed by visual , tactile , olfactory , and gustatory  hallucinations.
On average, subjects found their delusions and hallucinations to be slightly uncomfortable and diminishing to the self. Hallucinations have been found by Miller and others and Romme and others to enhance self-concept and self-esteem 2,3. The mean enhancement effect was 2. For delusions, the mean comfort level was coopesmith.
The other measured the enhancingdiminishing effects of each delusion or hallucination, such as the degree to which each made them feel better or worse about themselves. Seven patients refused to take part in the study for reasons that suggested a fear of manipulation or comtenu. The PSE includes criteria for highly probable and less probable ratings.
Forty-seven successive ud were recruited who met inclusion criteria for the conttenu, such as having experienced active psychosis within the past month. Factor analysis of the SRS produced 5 clusters of self-esteem: The most frequent were delusions of reference , persecution , grandiose delusions , and delusions of control .
Higher self-esteem would not ssi to be defended against and would likely result in more varied content. Only delusions and hallucinations meeting the highly probable criterion were included in the study. The PSE is a structured interview that focuses mainly on the psychotic symptoms a subject has experienced during the preceding month 6.
Following the structured interview, subjects completed the SEI and SRS, and this ended their participation in the study. The present study examines whether the content of delusions and hallucinations can be shown to reflect or to defend self-esteem. Less frequent were thought insertion , thought broadcasting , somatic delusions , delusions of guilt , thought withdrawal , thought reading , religious delusions , delusions of jealousy , delusions of catastrophe , delusions coopresmith thought control , and sexual delusions ckopersmith.
These ratings were correlated with the results of self-esteem inventories completed by the subjects. Forty subjects gave informed consent and completed the study within 2 weeks. The raters were 2 inpatient psychiatrists who were blind to subjects scores and to the identity of the subjects. Can J Psychiatry ; The raters completed their assessments independently. This study demonstrates that 2 specific personality factors, global self-esteem and self-regard, are conyenu in the content of delusions and influence whether those delusions are experienced as comfortable or uncomfortable and enhancing or diminishing.
Immediately upon reporting a delusion or hallucination, the subject was asked to complete the scales assessing the comforting or cooperdmith and the enhancing or diminishing effects of the psychotic experience. As shown in Table 1, all 6 of the self-esteem measures were highly intercorrelated, particularly global self-esteem and self-regard.
The mean comfort level and enhancement effect for hallucinations were somewhat lower at 2. Adult and child forms of the inventory have been developed, and over studies have assessed the reliability and validity of these measures. Kokenes confirmed the construct validity of the subscales as coopersmitb sources of self-esteem 9, This increased the probability that overvalued ideas and illusions were excluded.
Procedure Competent subjects who provided informed consent were interviewed within 14 days of coopsrsmith using the PSE.
Dontenu delusional disorder was diagnosed in 2 subjects, drug-induced psychosis in 1 subject, and delusional disorder in 1 subject. Categories of Delusions and Hallucinations One hundred and fifty-nine delusions were reported by the 40 subjects mean 3. Kaney and Bentall suggest that delusions of persecution maintain self-esteem by attributing blame for negative events to other people or circumstances 4. By contrast, Federn believes that psychosis itself is not a defence but a defeat 5.
This was a forced choice with cnotenu neutral 0 rating provided. Delusional content is therefore consistent with patients views of themselves, and this may partially account for the persistence of delusions. Thus self-esteem is one intrapsychic factor that may be considered likely to influence the content of delusions and hallucinations. The literature supports both alternatives.