Title, BS Part 1 (Fusion welded Pressure Vessels, C-Steels). Contributor, BSI. Publisher, BSI British Standards Institution, Export Citation . 21 Sep brought all the pressure vessel interests together under one general It was used, for instance, in BS and BS pressure vessel. 22 Jul For vessels under internal pressure the design pressure is usually taken at BS – Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels for Use in the.
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Consideration needs to be given to the temperature of the fluids that are to be handled and any excursions in temperature that could occur as a result of the failure of temperature control systems. The design of atmospheric storage tanks in general is governed by API Std Design and construction of large, welded, low-pressure storage tanks and API Std Welded steel tanks for oil storage.
On centrifugal compressors some of the principal malfunctions include rotor or shaft failure, bearing failure, vibration and surge.
A number of standards and codes exist for the storage of petroleum products and flammable liquids generally. In many occasions a number of different options may be available and final selection may depend upon a range of factors. Protection against lightning strikes on process plant located outside buildings is required since lightning is a potential ignition source especially for fires involving storage tanks.
Health and Safety Executive. There are many factors that govern the selection of seals for a particular application including the product being handled, the environment which the seal is installed in, the arrangement of the seal, the equipment the seal is to be installed in, secondary packing requirements, seal face combinations, seal gland plate arrangements, and main seal body etc.
It should be demonstrated that wherever possible measures have been taken to prevent, control or mitigate the consequences of such events by the appropriate selection of materials of construction, fabrication methods, instrumentation and control or others. API Std Venting atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks: Some mechanical seals are assemblies of great complexity and consist of components manufactured to very high tolerances.
However consideration prfssure also be given to other parameters and the wind loading and any likely snow loading should also be considered. The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material lost by corrosion and erosion or scaling. This Technical Measures Document primarily considers the latter stages of the detailed design processes and identifies the detailed design issues, codes and applicable standards for the mechanical design of equipment.
The design of the furnace or boiler enclosure should be able to withstand the thermal conditions associated with the system and specialist designs are often required. The extremes of ambient temperature should be taken into account for plant situated outside buildings.
Are you an Engineering professional? Evidence of the following should be available: Not all the codes or guidance documents identified below are currently available and many have been superseded.
By collection and analysis of vibration signatures of rotating equipment it is possible to identify which components of the system are responsible for particular frequencies of the vibration signal. Published by HSE Books Low pressure storage tanks; Pressure or refrigerated pressure storage tanks; Refrigerated storage tanks.
Fans The main applications for fans are for high flow, low pressure applications such as supplying air for drying, conveying material suspended in a gas stream, removing fumes, or in condensing towers. Materials of construction Vessels Materials used for the manufacture of pressure vessels should have appropriate properties for all operating conditions that are reasonably foreseeable, and for all test conditions.
The position of addition of reactants may also be important – sub-surface and directly into an intimate mixing zone within the reactor may result in the minimisation of the generation of vesse, by-products. Erosion is often localised especially at areas of high velocity or impact.
Part 1 vexsel Specification for carbon and carbon manganese steels Part 2 – Presure for alloy steels Part 3 – Specification for corrosion and heat resisting steels.
Attempts should be made to reduce the requirement for such protective equipment by designing pressute and safer processes in the first instance. The generation of unstable by-products or excessive reaction rates may increase the potential for a hazardous situation to develop. They are used in applications where a leak tight seal of almost any fluid is required. The severity of the deterioration is strongly influenced by the concentration, temperature, and nature of the corrosive agents in the fluids and the corrosion resistance of the construction materials.
The system should focus on ensuring that the design intent is met, and that deviations are properly assessed and controlled. If erosion is vesael to occur then more resistant materials should be specified or the vesssel surface protected in some way. Fully refrigerated storage is required ba atmospheric pressure and at the boiling points of the substances concerned. Several different methods are used to construct pressure vessels, most however are constructed using welded joints.
Codes of Practice and guidance The following codes of practice may be useful reading for the assessor when considering the process design of plant and equipment. The CIA has withdrawn this document. They are used in both process gas and refrigeration duties. The Safety Report should adequately demonstrate that consideration has been given to the concepts.
Although the majority of pressure vessels are constructed from metallic compounds pressure vessels can also be constructed from materials such as glass reinforced plastic GRPor fibre reinforced plastic FRP.
Conventional stuffing box with soft packing; Hydrodynamic seal, where rotating vanes keep the shaft free; Mechanical seals. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Design, installation and operation of vessels located above ground, ISBN 0 X. Inherently safe design should be considered during the design stage in an effort to reduce the hazard potential of the plant. The standard recommends that all possible forms of corrosion such as chemical attack, rusting, erosion and high temperature oxidation are reviewed, that particular attention be paid to impurities and to fluid velocities, and that where doubt exists corrosion tests should be carried out.
Inherently Safer design The principles of inherently safer design are particularly important for major hazard plants and should be considered during the design stage. Metallic liners are installed in various ways. Where strongly exothermic reactions or runaway reactions are possible it may not be possible to adequately design the equipment to withstand the maximum predicted temperature and pressure.
Consideration should be given to the possibility of pressure cycling in equipment and subsequent failure of the equipment due to metal fatigue Materials of construction Another important consideration in mechanical design is the selection of the material of construction. A Safety Report should demonstrate that consideration has been given to the appropriate standards and codes of practice developed by legislators, regulators, professional institutions and trade associations.
The Safety report should contain evidence that the materials of construction that have been selected are compatible with the process fluids to be handled and the design conditions that have been chosen. A number of publications are dedicated to the handling of ammonia and specific guidance is given in: The advice of specialist materials engineers should be sought in the event of difficult applications being identified.
Pumps Many pumps are of the centrifugal type, although positive displacement types such as reciprocating and screw types are also used.